A Wiki of Annotated Web Links For the Study of Ancient Gaul and Ancient Celtic Culture




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Culture
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"Barbarians and Romans Thematic Essay Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: metmuseum.org. Web. 10 Nov. 2009. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/barb/hd_barb.htm>.
Information about Barbarians: how they were deployed to be mercenaries and protect the Roman frontiers. It explains the Barbarian's motivations.
Rating: 5/5

"BBC - Wales - Education - Iron Age Celts - Factfile." BBC - Homepage. Web. 11 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/celts/factfile/timeline.shtml>.
Gives evidence of the Celts. Says how the Greeks and Romans wrote about the Iron Age Celts.
Rating: 5/5

"Celtic Art and Cultures." Celtic Art and Cultures. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.unc.edu/celtic/mapsindex.html>.
A timeline that covers 1800 years of Celtic art. While it covers many years, it only has about one art piece for each 100 years.
Rating: 3/5

"The Celtic Druids" Earth Mysteries. Web. 12 November 2009 <http://www.britannia.com/wonder/michell2.html>; This site talks about the Celtic Druids and what position they held in society.
Rating: 3/5

“The Celtic Influence”BBC.co.uk. BCC, 23 May 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/irish/articles/view/720/english/>.
A brief history of the Celts and how they influenced the world today. While it has a lot of information, it is not very extensive and pretty general.
Rating: 3/5

"The Celts" University of Texas. Web. 12 November 2009 <http://www.utexas.edu/courses/ironagecelts/texts/poppi.pdf>
A review of an archaelogical dig done by the University of Texas. Gives concrete evidence of the Celts' culture and displays pictures of the findings.
Rating: 4/5

"The Celts." Washington State University - Pullman, Washington. Web. 01 Dec. 2009. <http://www.wsu.edu:8080/%7Edee/MA/CELTS.HTM>.
A look at the Celts starting in ancient times and into the middle ages. Very detailed. Expands on the different cultural aspects of the Celts.
Rating: 5/5

Corey, Brandon. "Ancient Civilizations- Celts." Ancient Civilizations. Web. 13 Nov. 2009.
<http://techcenter.davidson.k12.nc.us/fall026/celts.htm>
This is a good source that talks about the Celtic culture. It talks about their religion, art, government, etc.
Rating: 5/5

Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997. Books.google.com. Google. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=tzU3RIV2BWIC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=ancient+celtic+culture&ots=wUo4X2827K&sig=Ro-xfUKckGvxh5-Kijl5_nWqlGw#v=onepage&q=celtic&f=false >.
Shows the origin of Celtic languages and how they dispersed to the different ends of Europe, and how it affected the cultures of Europe. While not a whole book dedicated to the Celts, has some very good information.
Rating: 4/5

Grant, Neil. Everyday Life of the Celts Uncovering History. Black Rabbit Books, 2004. Google Books. Google, 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?id=YCV41ImfLvMC&dq=Celt+Armor&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s>.
This is an incredibly useful Google Book, with much information and colorful pictures on the Celts. It describes the everyday life of the Celts.
Rating: 5/5

Green, Miranda J. The Celtic World. Routledge, 1996. Google Books. Google, 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=DeV3EZKzcqUC&oi=fnd&pg=PA21&dq=Celt+War&ots=28PIepWakP&sig=aJLRfMMSTkF9QPQGdUPhV4gLRJQ#v=onepage&q=Celt%20War&f=false>.
This Google Book has details on the Celtic Culture. It also talks about art of the time and its relation to the Celtic Culture.
Rating: 4/5

"History of the Celts." BBC - Homepage. Web. 11 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A207479>.
A timeline of Celtic history. It ranges from 500 BC to 1998 AD.
Rating: 5/5

"A History of Modern and Extinct Celtic Languages." BBC. 25 Oct. 2000. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A447824>.
Shows the evolution and history of the Celtic language and lists some different Insular Celtic languages and what modern languages have their roots from there.
Rating: 4/5

Hooker, Richard. "The Celts." Washington State University - Pullman, Washington. Web. 09 Nov. 2009. <http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MA/CELTS.HTM>.
Celtic Culture: good information about Celtic Society, Religion & the Gauls. Shows that that author has written many other pages on different topics. information on the Celt's culture such as society and religion. It then refers to the Gauls, as "the earliest Celts who were major players in the classical world".
Rating: 5/5

The Iceni. Roman-Britain.org, 20 Oct. 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <http://www.roman-britain.org/tribes/iceni.htm>.
Lots of info about the Iceni Celtic tribe. Also, since it was done by an organization, one can easily find info about the author.
Rating: 4/5

The Irish Celts. Ancient Web. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <http://www.theancientweb.com/explore/content.aspx?content_id=15>.
Extremely lengthy description of ancient Gallic Culture that contains about half of the page is dedicated to the Gallic Wars. Has lots of information on the ancient Celts, but not enough information about trustworthiness of the author.
Rating: 3/5

MacCulloch, John Arnott. The Religion of the Ancient Celts. 1911. Nov.2009.< http://books.google.com/books?id=9GM0jOcjKmwC&dq=the+religion+of+the+ancient+celts&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=RQn-SorbMsmCnQf48KWYCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CBUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=&f=false>
A very good source that goes into depth about the Celt religion.
Rating: 5/5

Mallory, J. P., and Douglas Q. Adams. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis, 1997. Google Books. Google, 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?id=tzU3RIV2BWIC&dq=Ancient+Celtic+Culture&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s>.
This is a Google Book with background on the Indo-European Culture, which formed into what became the Celts. Some of this background is needed to understand the growth of Gaul and the Celts over the years.
Rating: 4/5

.Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. The Celts: a history. 2003. Print. <http://books.google.com/books?id=-yd1huHoXJwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s >
This is a book that talks about the history of the Celts. It goes into good detail about their culture
Rating: 4/5



Myths

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Aldhouse-Green, Miranda. Celtic Myths. Print. Ser. 1998. <http://books.google.com/books?id=DRbTkaHJpJcC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=&f=false >
A great book that talks about the Celtic myths. Gives information on almost of the gods and goddesses of the Celts.
Rating: 5/5

Aldhouse-Green, Miranda J. Celtic myths. Austin: University of Texas, 1993. Celtic Myths- Google Books. Google. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?id=DRbTkaHJpJcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=celtic+myths&lr=&source=gbs_similarbooks_s&cad=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false>.
Tells how we know about Celtic myths and gives explanations of why they are hard to find. Gives archaeological evidence.
Rating: 4/5

"BBC - Wales - Education - Iron Age Celts - Factfile." BBC - Homepage. Web. 11 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/celts/factfile/religion.shtml>.
Cite about Roman religion and belief. It insists that the Iron Age Celts believed in many gods and goddesses. To keep them happy, they sacrificed their possessions.
Rating: 5/5

"Celtic Folklore." Internet Sacred Text Archive. 2008. Web. 13 Nov. 2009. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/index.htm >
A great source that gives primary sources about the Celtic Myths. It has many sources to choose from and pick what to read
Rating: 4/5

"Celtic Myth and Legend -." Google Books. Web. 01 Dec. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?id=6-g5zu5oBg4C&dq=celtic+myth+and+legend&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=e9oVYG94Rh&sig=AK1_T2sqNjDaFOCBFCTn492P_TM&hl=en&ei=8yb-SvWHN4qzlAfVp-iUCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=&f=false>.
Connects the Greek and Celtic traditions. A very interesting look at the gods of Gaul and their impact on life.
Rating: 4/5

"Celtic Myth and Legend Index." Internet Sacred Text Archive Home. Web. 01 Dec. 2009. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/cml/index.htm>.
Outlines several different sorts of Celtic writings. Organized and presented for easy viewing.
Rating: 5/5

"Celtic mythology: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article." AbsoluteAstronomy.com. Web. 12 Nov. 2009. <http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Celtic_mythology#encyclopedia>.
Gives an overview of Celtic Mythology. It gives historical sources as well as the mythology of other places such as Ireland and Wales.
Rating: 4/5

"Celtic Myths and Legends -." Google Books. Web. 01 Dec. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=4CUS2j5fw-QC&oi=fnd&pg=PA94&dq=ancient+celts&ots=rA1R36JSV1&sig=B0vDMq_ZPWgPJMrNIQ7HWqc4P1M#v=onepage&q=ancient%20celts&f=false>.
A very informative book about the rich culture of myths and legends that the Celts have. Looks back to the Ancient times, while looking forward to a brighter future.
Rating: 5/5

"Celtic Tree Magic." BBC. 3 Dec. 2001. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A666425>.
Shows how trees played a role in the Celtic religion and alphabet. Has charts and pictures that help to get the point across.
Rating: 4/5

Ellis, Peter Berresford. Celtic Myths and Legends. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1999. <http://books.google.com/books?id=rsPNup_a2owC&printsec=frontcover&dq=celtic+myths#v=onepage&q=&f=false>
Has myths and legends organized by their origin, such as Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Has a great variety of myths and covers myths from places that others do not.
Rating: 4/5

Ellis, Peter Berresford. Celtic Myths and Legends. 2002. Print. <http://books.google.com/books?id=rsPNup_a2owC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=&f=false >
A 600 page book that has tons of info. on the Celt druids. It also talks about the influences the Celts have on some religions
Rating: 5/5

"Gods and Fighting Men." Sacred-texts. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/gafm/index.htm>.
A extensive list of wars and battles with information about the heroes that fought in them. Has a lot of information for each battle and hero.
Rating: 5/5

Lover, Samuel. "Legends and Stories of Ireland." Sacred-texts. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/lasi/index.htm> Has a list of different myths, each with a lot of information. Could use more myths, as it only has a few.
Rating: 3/5

MacCulloch, John A., Jan Machal, and Louis H. Gray. Celtic mythology. Marshall Jones Company, 1918. Google Books. Google, 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=-pYYAAAAIAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Celtic+Legends&ots=ae7visZvGQ&sig=SWkZcIVsDty74FgSKV2m82vhDlc#v=onepage&q=Celtic%20Legends&f=false>.
This is another Google book on the Celtic myths. This one, though, has illustrations to help fully describe the Celtic Culture.
Rating: 4/5

MacCulloch, Máchal & Gray. Celtic Mythology. 1918. Print. <http://books.google.com/books?id=-pYYAAAAIAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s >
A great book that talks about the Celtic myths. It has myths about the their druids, which are gods/goddesses
Rating: 4/5

"Myths and Folk-lore of Ireland." Sacred-texts.com. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/mfli/index.htm >
An digital book that contains the full version of myths from Celtic culture.
Rating: 5/5

Rolleston, T.W. Celtic Myths and Legends. 1990. Print. <http://books.google.com/books?id=PtpP7vg0ot0C&dq=Celtic+myths&source=gbs_navlinks_s >
A book that tells about the myths of the Celts. Has many Celtic legends.
Rating- 5/5

Rolleston, T. W. Myths and Legends of the Celtic Race. Cosimo, Inc., 2009. Google Books. Google, 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=IutjLHJzHCAC&oi=fnd&pg=PA17&dq=Celt+Legends&ots=BIs1pSZJbo&sig=hn_3elkTDmAjKKSbQ_UQFyzdF0A#v=onepage&q=Celt%20Legends&f=false>.
Google Book is on Myths and Legends of the Celts. It also speaks a little on the Celts in ancient history.
Rating: 4/5

Squire, Charles. Celtic Myth and Legend. Courier Dover Publications, 2003. Google Books. Google, 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=6-g5zu5oBg4C&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Ancient+Celtic+Mythology&ots=e9oVXD41Yi&sig=HRFiC3h_C4cWt6BYnUyO6jlCW7U#v=onepage&q=Ancient%20Celtic%20Mythology&f=false>.
This is a Google Book on Celtic Mythology and Legend. Mythology is an important aspect to understanding culture.
Rating: 4/5

Squire, Charles. Celtic Myth and Legend Poetry and Romance. Kessinger, 2006. Google Books. Google, 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=jeJJiKop6REC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Ancient+Celtic+Mythology&ots=atoWDca2Ni&sig=TpTzozWN0kdnIKS7kFFdE4RvzcM#v=onepage&q=Ancient%20Celtic%20Mythology&f=falseGoogle>.
This Google Book deals more directly with Celtic mythology in the British Islands. This is a little more specific, but shows how Celtic Culture has influenced the British Islands.
Rating: 4/5

"The Gods and Goddesses of the Celtic Lands." SCNS - Richard A. Astin. Web. 01 Dec. 2009. <http://www.scns.com/earthen/other/seanachaidh/godcelt.html>.
Discusses hundreds of Celtic gods. Very well organized, each god having a good description.
Rating: 5/5

"Transformations of Celtic Mythology in Arthurian Legend." University of Idaho. Web. 14 Nov. 2009. <http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/student_orgs/arthurian_legend/celtic/celtic.html>.
Even if there is excess information, it gives facts about Celtic mythology. This cite enforces that the Celts believed in an "Otherworld." It includes how the Celts stories traveled by oral tradition, rather than writing it down, which is why we don't have as much knowledge of them.
Rating: 4/5



Warfare

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"Ancient Celtic Warfare." Apple Warrior. Web. 01 Dec. 2009. <http://www.applewarrior.com/celticwell/ejournal/beltane/warfare.htm>.
An insightful look at the warfare tactics of the Celts. Provides insight into the way that the Celts liked to fight, and helps the modern person to envision the great Celtic army. Site for people who recreate Celtic battles, using the same tactics and weaponry.
Rating: 4/5

"Ancient Ireland: The Ancient Celtic World." The Ancient Web - the Ancient World's Great Civilizations. Web. 11 Nov. 2009. <http://www.theancientweb.com/explore/content.aspx?content_id=15>.
A description about Celtic warfare. The Two sections that are most helpful are: "Celtic Warfare" and "The Nature of Celtic Warfare"
Rating: 5/5

"Barbarians and Romans | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: metmuseum.org. Web. 01 Dec. 2009. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/barb/hd_barb.htm>.
An insightful look at the interaction between the Celts and the Romans. Provides answers about the diplomatic situation between the Romans and the Barbarians, and gives people a look into the politics of the day.
Rating: 5/5

"BBC - Wales - Education - Iron Age Celts - Factfile." BBC - Homepage. Web. 12 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/celts/factfile/clothes.shtml>.
Tells how the Celtic soldiers dressed. They used brightly colored clothes. A soldier's helmet showed his importance and ranking in society.
Rating: 5/5

Caesar, Julius, and Arthur T. Walker. Caesar's Gallic War: Books I-IV. Scott, Foresman and company, 1907. Google Books. Google, 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?id=A7pEAAAAIAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s>.
This Google Book is on the Gallic Wars. It includes pictures to further tell the story.
Rating: 4/5

"Celtic Heritage : Celtic Warriors." Celtic Jewelry for Sale Celtic Jewelry Stores Celtic Rings Celtic Necklaces TN. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.celticheritage.net/warrior.shtml>
Gives us a brief but good information on the traditions of the Celtic Warrior.
Rating: 4/5

"Celtic Warriors." Kernunnos Home Page. Web. 11 Nov. 2009. <http://www.kernunnos.com/culture/warriors/index.html>.
Deeply describes the Celtic warriors. It says how the family structure is concerning how women stayed home with the children, tending the crops, as the men were off fighting in battles.
Rating: 5/5

"Celtic Weapons" Scottish Mist. Web. 01 Dec. 2009. <http://www.scottishmist.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=48&Itemid=63>.
All about the weapons of the Celts. Provides pictures of each weapon. While it is in a blog-like format, it does not detract from the presentation of information about the Celts.
Rating: 4/5

Chasseriau, Theodore. Scene from the Gallic Wars: The Gaul Littavicus, Betraying the Roman Cause, Flees to Gergovie to Support Vercingétorix. 1838-1840. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Paris. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.metmuseum.org/Works_of_Art/collection_database/european_paintings/scene_from_the_gallic_wars_the_gaul_littavicus_betraying_theodore_chasseriau/objectview.aspx?OID=110003239&collID=11&dd1=11>.
This is a Met Museum scene of the Gallic Wars. It is an oil on canvas painting.
Rating: 4/5

"Clann Tartan - (articles of interest)." Clann Tartan - (welcome!). Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.clanntartan.org/articles/celticwarfare.html>. Website explains the tactics the Celts used in combat. It also uses some quotes from the book 'Celtic Warfare' by James Hill
Rating: 4/5

"Explore a Celtic Warrior." Web. 11 Nov. 2009. <http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/war2.htm>.
An awesome cite about the Celtic soldiers. Interactice site about the Celtic warrior.
Rating: 5/5

IRON AGE - 3rd - 1st CENTURY BC. Paleo Direct. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <http://www.paleodirect.com/pgset2/r059.htm>.
A few paragraphs with pictures and some contact info
Rating: 4/5

"Hand Weapons." BBC. 30 Oct. 2000. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A454637>.
Describes the different weapons that are used all the world. It is not totally dedicated to Celtic weapons, but includes them.
Rating: 3/5

"History of the Celts." BBC. BBC, 23 Nov. 1999. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A207479>.
This is a BBC timeline of the Celtic Culture, and follows it over a span of 2500 years! This details the violence between the Romans and Celts.
Rating: 4/5

On some Weapons Found at Kilmainham. Royal Irish Academy. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <http://www.jstor.org/pss/20520042>.
Written by a university professor with MLA format and a bibliography as well as lots of information about the findings at Kilmainham.
Rating: 5/5

Norris, Michael. "Arms and Armor in Medieval Europe." The Metroplitan Museum of Art. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/arms/hd_arms.htm>.
A description of the weapons of history, and tells some of the weapons the Celts used.
Rating: 3/5

Raimund, Karl. "Ancient Celtic Warfare." Celtic Well. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <"Hand Weapons." BBC. 30 Oct. 2000. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. <http://www.applewarrior.com/celticwell/ejournal/beltane/warfare.htm>
Describes all the equipment and the necessities that the Celtic warriors had. Also describes how they maneuvered in battle.
Rating: 4/5

"Terret (Rein Guide) [Celtic; Britain] (1988.79)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/05/euw/ho_1988.79.htm (October 2006)
This is a Met Museum source that focuses on the Celts using chariots in warfare. This was legendary, and this piece of art helps to recreate the history.
Rating: 5/5

"Warriors, Weapons and Warfare." Web. 01 Dec. 2009. <http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/warriors.htm>.
A detailed look at the warriors, weapons, and warfare tactics of the Celts. Full of great information, particularly on the warriors of Gaul and their physical characteristics.
Rating: 5/5

"Western and Central Europe, 1000 B.C.–1 A.D.". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/04/euw/ht04euw.htm (October 2000)
This is a Met Museum timeline of Western and Central Europe and the Celtic Cultures. Is also puts a date on the confrontation with Rome.
Rating: 4/5

Originally designed by the Honors Latin II students at the John Carroll School December 2009. ENJOY!


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